Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Choi Hong Hi

Choi Hong Hi

Choi Hong Hi (9 November 1918 – 15 June 2002), also known as General Choi, was a South Korean army general and martial artist who is a controversial figure in the history of the Korean martial art of taekwondo.[a] Choi is regarded by many as the 'Founder of Taekwondo'—most often by International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) organizations. Others, such as World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) omit him from their versions of taekwondo history

Early life

Choi was born on 9 November 1918 in Hwa Dae, Myŏngch'ŏn county, in what is now North Korea, which was then under Japanese rule. At the time, the place was named Meigawa-gun (Myongchon-kun), Kankyo-hokudo (Hamgyong-Pukto), Chosen, as part of the Empire of Japan. Choi's father sent him to study calligraphy under Han Il Dong, who was also "a master of Taek Kyon, the ancient Korean art of foot fighting" (Park, 1993, p. 241). Choi travelled to Japan, where he studied English, mathematics, and karate. In Kyoto, he met a fellow Korean with the surname Kim, who was a karate instructor and taught Choi this martial art. Choi also learned Shotokan karate under Funakoshi Gichin. Just before he had left Korea, Choi apparently had a disagreement with a wrestler named Hu, and the possibility of a future confrontation inspired him to train; in his own words, "I would imagine that these were the techniques I would use to defend myself against the wrestler, Mr. Hu, if he did attempt to carry out his promise to tear me limb from limb when I eventually returned to Korea" (Park, 1993, p. 242). Choi attained the rank of 1st dan in karate in 1939, and then 2nd dan soon after.

Military career

Choi had been forced to serve in the Japanese army during World War II, but was implicated in a rebellion and imprisoned, during which time he continued practicing martial arts. Following the war, in January 1946, Choi was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Korean army. From 1946 to 1951, Choi received promotions to first lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, and then brigadier general. Choi was promoted to major general in 1954.


Choi combined elements of Taekkyeon and Shotokan Karate to develop a martial art that he called "Taekwon-Do" (태권도; 跆拳道), which means "foot, hand, the way" or "the way of hand and foot" and it was so named on 11 April 1955. Choi founded the Oh Do Kwan, and held an honorary 4th dan ranking in the Chung Do Kwan. Due to accusations of dishonesty, Choi was stripped of his rank and position in the Chung Do Kwan. During the 1960s, Choi and Nam Tae Hi led the original masters of taekwondo in promoting their martial art around the world, though these would be only the first of many such endeavors.

ITF taekwondo organizations credit Choi with starting the spread of taekwondo internationally by stationing Korean taekwondo instructors around the world, and have consistently claimed that ITF-style taekwondo is the only authentic style of taekwondo, most notably in early sections of its textbooks. He was also the author of the first English taekwondo syllabus book, Taekwon-Do, published by Daeha Publication Company in 1965. In 1972, Choi went into exile in Canada and the South Korean government formed the WTF in 1973. He lived in Toronto until his death in North Korea in 2002.


Choi died of cancer on 15 June 2002 in Pyongyang, North Korea. Choi is listed in the Taekwondo Hall of Fame with various titles: "Father of Taekwon-Do," "Founder and First President of the International Taekwon-Do Federation," and "Founder of Oh Do Kwan." Choi is survived by his wife, Choi Joon Hee; his son, Choi Jung Hwa; two daughters, Sunny and Meeyun; and several grandchildren. A memorial service to mark the 10th anniversary of death of Choi Hong Hi took place at the Patriotic Martyrs Cemetery in Pyongyang in 2012.

Sunday, June 9, 2013

Perfecting the death of Jiu-Jitsu

Helio Gracie, who died on Thursday (29/1) at the age of 95 years, perfecting of Japanese jujutsu so that more effective and efficient. The greatness of his creation technique makes Royce Gracie, her small-bodied, Ultimate Fighting Champion champions three times.

Helio Gracie, in an interview with Brazilian magazine Playboyedisi 2001 and diterjemahkanGlobal Training Report, so proud that he perfected this technique.

"Even I, who never weighed more than 63 pounds, could drop the person who weighs 120 pounds," he said. "It's shown my son, Royce, in a fight in the UFC."

Royce Gracie is a champion of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) - mixed martial arts fight - season 1, 2, and 4 in 1993/1994. Gracie, with 184 high and weighs 80 pounds, is small for the size of the fighter in the UFC.

In the Gracie family, which lowers the martial arts, Royce is also not the most skilled. There are still more good brother, Rickson Gracie. But the family decided to send Royce Gracie as their representative in the UFC because he was the smallest. He can be used indicate that the effectiveness of Brazilian jiu-jitsu makes her body could defeat a much larger opponent.

The exact calculation.

In UFC 1, Royce became champion. In the semifinals she defeated former freestyle wrestling champion, Ken Shamrock, the more body weight of 20 kilograms. In the final, he beat Gerard Gordeau, Savate world champion - a sort of French kickboxing martial arts - 20 pounds heavier.

The victory afterward followed the series that show the Royce Gracie against people who sometimes almost twice her body. For two years, Royce Gracie was not invincible.

World martial arts enthusiasts to open her eyes and Brazilian jiu-jitsu is considered the most effective martial arts.

Helio Gracie jiu-jitsu perfect - and then used Royce Gracie - because of his size and sickly. Before adolescence, Helio could not even practicing jiu-jitsu with his brothers.

Gracie family first learned judo in 1916. Before World War II, judo was still often referred to jiu-jitsu Jigoro Kano, following the name of the man who perfected jujutsu into judo.

The first study was Carlos Gracie, who is 13 years older than Helio. Master Carlos is one of the five most good student of Jigoro Kano, the Mitsuyo Maeda.

Carlos later taught three brother, Osvaldo, Gastao, and Jorge, Judo moves. But Helio, who was only three years old, is still too small to practice. In addition, body pain-relief. He often suddenly fainted and unbalanced way.

He could only see his brothers, whose body was large, practicing. Even so, Helio diligently waiting for the jiu-jitsu training. For 14 years he watched the exercise. As a result, he said, "I could be like a parrot and repeat what he taught his disciples."

One day, when Helio was 16 years old, Carlos came late to the gym when the student is ready. Helio offered to train, apparently impressed his new pupils. "Since then, I adapted the techniques of jiu-jitsu with me again."

The technique used is the adaptation that can be used jiu-jitsu skinny guy like him. With 175 centimeters tall, her weight is never more than 63 pounds, he was not going to be like his brother, Carlos, which is great.

"My sister and I perfected techniques as weak," he said. It uses the techniques and principles of physics such as the power levers. "You, for example, can not lift a car with two hands your power. But with the jack can be."

He perfected a technique for optimizing the power lever. "These improvements make the form of jujutsu that are superior to jujutsu which existed before," he said.

Helio Gracie also held some fight to introduce jujutsu. In the first fight, in 1932, he beat boxer Antonio Portugal in just 30 seconds.

Boxing itself, according to Helio, is the most effective martial after jiu-jitsu. One weakness: long berlatihnya. "In jiu-jitsu, joined 40 class with me was enough, twice a week," he said.

The second fight, against wrestlers Fred Ebert, ending with the doctor stopped. The fight lived Helio, then, so famous in Brazil, so once held in the world's biggest soccer stadium, Maracana. When it was Helio Gracie with a series of Japanese wrestlers, Kato.

Gracie defeat occurred in 1955 from pejudo Japan, Kimura, with 20 thousand people watched, including the president of Brazil. In the fight, Kimura repeatedly slammed Gracie with ippon techniques seoinage (thrown with one hand) that Gracie fainting. But Gracie survive.

The match ended after 15 minutes, after the Gracie family Helio throw in the towel because of the hand, which is clamped Kimura, broken. Kimura's technique now used in the jiu-jitsu known as the "kimura" as a tribute.

Gracie said that the moves he developed was destroyed aggression opponents - ranging from punches, kicks, until a sharp weapon attack. "In jiu-jitsu there are 100 types of defenses to these attacks," he said. Each type of attack, Gracie said, there are three or four techniques survive.

Helio himself died in old age, 95 years old, but still very good condition because life is very disciplined. "I never smoke, drink, or eat udapan," he said.

He also ate fish, cold cheese, fruit. He limiting sugar. "I just eat bread once a day," he said. "I learned this from my sister for 15 years and was never cold."

Most importantly, he said, "I never had sex except to have children

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